Last minute news! Soviet UnionThe last leader of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, died at the age of 91.
In a statement made by the Central Clinical Hospital of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, it was stated that 91-year-old Gorbachev died in the evening after a serious and long illness.
Gorbachev, the highest governing body of the USSR from 1985 to 1991 Communist Party of the Soviet Union He served as the general secretary of the (CPSU) Central Committee.
With the reform made in 1990, the presidential system was introduced. Gorbachev was elected President of the USSR in a vote in the Supreme Soviet. Gorbachev from 1990 to 1991 USSRHe was the head of state.
The reform efforts he initiated, called perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness), ended the Cold War, but the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ended in the country.
The USSR officially disintegrated when Gorbachev stepped down on 25 December 1991.
Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 for his important role in ending the Cold War.
“THAT’S WHAT HAPPENED IN USSR WAS MY DRAMA”
Asked whether he blamed himself for the collapse of the USSR, Gorbachev said, “What really upsets me is that the people in Russia did not sufficiently understand what I set out to achieve and what I did. Perestroika (restructuring of the economic and political system), work for the country and the world. “I am sorry that I did not see the end of the road. What happened in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was my drama. It was a drama for everyone living in the Soviet Union.” had given the answer.
WHO IS MIHAIL GORBAÇOV?
Shaping world politics, Mikhail Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931 in a village in the south of Russia.
Moscow State UniversityIt was here that he crossed paths with Gorbachev’s wife, Raisa, who was studying law in .
After completing his education, he returned to his native village with his wife and started working in the prosecutor’s office. But his mind was always in politics.
He was a candidate for Communist Party membership in high school. He was accepted as a full member of the party at the university. He settled in Moscow in 1978, quickly climbing the party ladder. He was the youngest member of the Politburo in 1980.
Reinforcing his success in politics in 1985, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party after three consecutive senior members died.
Gorbachev, who took the leadership seat, took action to consolidate his power within the party and to revive the Soviet Union.
GLASNOST AND PERESTROYKA
stalinIt aimed to transform the Soviet regime of Russia into a more modern social democracy. He had two plans for this; Glasnost (openness/transparency) and Perestroika (restructuring).
Within the framework of the Glasnost, that is, openness policy, reforms were made in the cultural field. Freedom of expression and press was expanded. Gorbachev sought ways to democratize the Soviet political system. Some mechanisms have been implemented for the transition to a limited free market economy.
Gorbachev also established warm relations with Western countries. He held a series of meetings with then-US President Ronald Reagan. In 1987, the two leaders signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Weapons Treaty to reduce nuclear weapons.
In 1989, Gorbachev made a historic decision to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. He brought the relations between the West and his country even closer.
Mikhail Gorbachevplayed a critical role in the end of the cold war and the fall of the Berlin Wall. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 for his successful leadership and contribution to the development of the world.
NEW COMPETITOR YELTSİN
Inspired by the Glasnost policy, some Warsaw Pact members and Soviet republics began to voice their demands for independence.
In addition to the risk of fragmentation and serious problems in the Soviet economy, it is faced with a new problem. GorbachevHe now had a new rival.
Boris Yeltsin was elected leader of the Russian Republic within the Soviet Union.
Mikhail Gorbachev had difficulties in sharing power with Yeltsin.
In August 1991, while on vacation with his family in Crimea, the ultra-hardline communists and the army, who feared the complete collapse of the Soviet Union, attempted a coup against him.
Prime Minister Pavlov, whom Gorbachev appointed to balance power-sharing difficulties with Yeltsin, was leading the coup attempt.
Gorbachev was held under house arrest in the Crimea by the putschists.
Thanks to Yeltsin’s resistance, the coup attempt did not succeed. Boris Yeltsin became a hero in the eyes of the Russian people with his attitude towards the coup.
The image of Gorbachev, who was rumored to be collaborating with the putschists, was irreparably damaged.
The 11 states that left the Soviet Union came together on December 8, 1991 to form the Commonwealth of Independent States. This event prepared the end of Gorbachev.
Forced to resign on December 25, 1991, Gorbachev transferred all his powers to Boris Yeltsin and left the political scene. With Gorbachev’s resignation, the Soviet Union completely disintegrated.
Mikhail Gorbachev’s efforts to return to politics by founding new parties in the following years were always fruitless.
Gorbachev, who frequently gave speeches in think tanks, came to the fore from time to time with his harsh criticisms of Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Although Gorbachev criticized Putin, he supported Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014.
Gorbachev, known by the nickname Gorby, undoubtedly earned a very special place in Russian history.